In addition to Islam, India was characterized by a number of other religions that represented different spiritual outlooks. Several languages and dialects spoken throughout the regions of Pakistan produced an imminent need for a uniting language.
There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, and Hindi of Persian loanwords, and new vocabulary draws primarily from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi. Urdu is therefore spoken and understood by the vast majority in some form or another, including a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as KarachiLahoreOkara DistrictSialkotRawalpindiIslamabadMultanFaisalabadHyderabadPeshawarQuettaJhangSargodha and Skardu.
Names[ edit ] Amir Khusro ca. While Urdu and Islam together played In urdu roles in developing the national identity of Pakistan, disputes in the s particularly those in East Pakistanchallenged the necessity for Urdu as a national symbol and its practicality as the lingua franca.
A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu are published in these states. Despite this, Urdu was chosen as a token of unity and as a lingua franca so as not to give any native Pakistani language preference over the other.
There are millions of Pakistanis whose native language is not Urdu, but because they have studied in Urdu medium schools, they can read and write Urdu along with their native language. Code switching Many bilingual or multi-lingual Urdu speakers, being familiar with both Urdu and English, display code-switching referred to as " Urdish " in certain localities and between certain social groups.
The Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. By adding these alphabets to the existing Persian alphabets the Urdu language became more suitable for the people of North India and Pakistan.
Urdu uses a modified form of Perso-Arabic script, while Hindi uses Devanagari. The barrier created between Hindi and Urdu is eroding: For this reason, it is also taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium school systems.
The barrier created between Hindi and Urdu is eroding: Urdu also retains a complete set of aspirated stops sounds pronounced with a sudden release with an audible breatha characteristic of Indo-Aryan, as well as retroflex stops.
Thus linguists usually count them as one single language and contend that they are considered as two different languages for socio-political reasons.
Notably, Urdu and Hindi are mutually intelligible. This can be seen in the popular culture of Bollywood or, more generally, the vernacular of North Indians and Pakistanis, which generally employs a lexicon common to both Hindi and Urdu speakers.
According to Islamic tradition, Arabicthe language spoken by the prophet Muhammad and uttered in the revelation of the Qur'anholds spiritual significance and power. English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian.
In practice English is used instead of Urdu in the higher echelons of government. One could conceive of a wide spectrum of dialects and registers, with the highly Persianised Urdu at one end of the spectrum and a heavily Sanskrit-based dialect, spoken in the region around Varanasiat the other end.
This also lead to a need to "cleanse" Urdu of all its Sanskrit words and lead Hindi speakers to want to be rid of Persian words that remained in their language. Hindi—Urdu controversy and Register sociolinguistics Although, at the spoken level, Hindi and Urdu are considered registers of a single language, they differ vastly in literary and formal vocabulary ; where literary Hindi draws heavily on Sanskrit and to a lesser extent Prakritliterary Urdu draws heavily on Persian and Arabic.
It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Konkanias well as some vocabulary from ArabicPersian and Chagatai that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu. Urdu developed in the 12th century ce from the regional Apabhramsha of northwestern India, serving as a linguistic modus vivendi after the Muslim conquest.
For this reason, it is also taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium school systems. This emphasis on politeness, which comes from the vocabulary, is known as adab and to sometimes as takalluf in Urdu.
Their distinction is most marked in terms of writing systems: Urdu is read and written as in other parts of India. Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins such as PashtunTajikUzbekHazarviand Turkmen who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu.
The Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. Similarities[ change change source ] Urdu is written right to left like Farsi script.
The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu vocabulary. Because of Urdu's similarity to Hindispeakers of the two languages can easily understand one another if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary.
India has more than 3, Urdu publications, including daily Urdu newspapers. Indian madrasahs also teach Arabic as well as Urdu. As an emerging common dialect, Hindustani absorbed large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words, and as Mughal conquests grew it spread as a lingua franca across much of northern India.
Hindi speakers are comfortable with using Persian-Arabic borrowed words  and Urdu speakers are also comfortable with using Sanskrit terminology. Written in the Persian alphabet or Devanagari it remained the primary lingua franca of northern India for the next four centuries although it varied significantly in vocabulary depending on the local language and achieved the status of a literary language, alongside Persian, in Muslim courts.
However, with independence, use of the word 'Hindustani' declined, being largely replaced by 'Hindi' and 'Urdu', or 'Hindi-Urdu' when either of those was too specific.
Further, it is quite easy in a longer conversation to distinguish differences in vocabulary and pronunciation of some Urdu phonemes.
تازہ ترین خبروں، ویڈیوز اور آڈیوز کے لیے بی بی سی اردو پر آئیے۔ بی بی سی اردو دنیا بھر کی خبروں کے حصول کے لیے. Learn key phrases in Urdu, listen to Urdu audio and find out about the alphabet. Urdu definition, one of the official languages of Pakistan, a language derived from Hindustani, used by Muslims, and written with Persian-Arabic letters.
See more. Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language with about million speakers, including those who speak it as a second language. It is the national language of Pakistan and is closely related to and mutually intelligible with Hindi, though a lot of Urdu vocabulary comes from Persian and Arabic, while Hindi contains more vocabulary from Sanskrit.
Intelligible with Hindi, but formal vocabulary borrowed from Arabic and Persian. Dakhini dialect of Urdu in India has fewer Persian and Arabic loans than Urdu. Rekhta is a form of Urdu used in poetry.
Urdu (/ ˈ ʊər d uː /; Urdu: اُردُو ALA-LC: Urdū (listen)—or, more precisely, Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.   It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan.In urdu